Úvod do korejštiny /Hangul/

5. august 2016 at 16:43 | Melissa Kinsley |  korejština
Zde uvádím 24 základních znaků pro korejské samohlásky a souhlásky korejského písma - Hangulu (한글/Hangeul). V závorkách [ ] je uvedena anglická transkripce. anglické y se zde vyslovuje jako j, eo jako o, eu jako u, yeo jako jo.


ㅓ ㅗ ㅜ ㅡ ㅣㅑ ㅕ ㅛ ㅠ

[uprostřed-na konci/na začátku]


V hranatých závorkách je uvedeno na prvním místě výslovnost písmena, když je písme
no uprostřed nebo na konci slova, na druhém místě je uvedeno, jak se písmeno čte na začátku slova. Písmeno ㅇ [ø / ng] má dvě zvukové hodnoty v závislosti na své poloze ve slabice. V poloze počáteční slabiky má prázdný zvuk (null sound). V poloze konečné slabiky má výslovnost [ng], např. jak v anglickém slově young.
Např. u písmene [g/k] ㄱ → ve slově Goryeo (고려) se na začátku slova čte jako k [Korjo]. Goryeo byla korejská dynastie. Uvnitř slova se potom ㄱ čte jako g. Výslovnost ㅈ [j/j] odpovídá dž, ㅊ [ch/ch] vyslovujeme jako č.


ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ᅪ ᅫ ᅬ ᅯ ᅰ ᅱ ᅴ

ae vyslovujeme jako [e] [ej], stejně tak v samohláskách yae nebo wae.


ㄲ ㄸ ㅃ ㅆ ㅉ

Třebaže se ve slovech vyskytují dvě stejná písmena za sebou, vyslovujeme jen jednou. Např. ㄲ [kk] vyslovujeme jako [k]. V případě ㅉ [jj], vyslovujeme tento znak jako [č], nikoli jako [dž]!

ㅏ [a]
ㅓ[eo] [o]
ㅗ [o]
ㅜ [u]
ㅡ [eu] [u]
ㅑ [ya] [ja]
ㅕ[yeo] [jo]
ㅛ [yo] [jo]
ㅠ [yu] [ju]
ㄱ [g/k]
ㄴ [n/n]
ㄷ [d/t]
ㄹ [r/l]
ㅁ [m/m]
ㅂ [b/p]
ㅇ[ nevyslovuje se /ng]
ㅈ [j/j] [dž/dž]
ㅊ [ch/ch] [č/č]
ㅋ [k/k]
ㅌ [t/t] [č/č]
ㅍ [p/p]
ㅎ [h/h]
ㅐ [ae] [e]
ㅒ [yae] [je]
ㅔ [e]
ㅖ [ye] [je]
ᅪ [wa]
ᅫ [wae] [ve]
ᅬ [we, oe]
ᅯ [wo]
ᅰ [we]
ᅱ [wi, y]
ᅴ [ui, y]
ㄲ [kk] [k]
ㄸ [tt] [t]
ㅃ [pp] [p]
ㅆ [ss] [s]
ㅉ [jj] [č]

pozn.: Pokud zaㅅ [s] následujeㅣ[i], vyslovujeme [ši] = si [ši], stejně tak shi [ši]. (shijak=šhidžak) Dvě oo za sebou se čte jako u.



initial consonant - počáteční souhláska
vowel - samohláska
final consonant - konečná souhláska


Korejské znaky by měly být sloučeny do slabičných bloků. Znaky souhlásek a samohlásek nelze používat samostatně!
한글 správně
ㅎㅏㄴ ㄱㅡㄹ špatně


source: www.kmaru.com; www.signflipstetable.com; www.innovativelanguage.com

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