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Úvod do korejštiny /Hangul/

5. august 2016 at 16:43 | Melissa Kinsley |  korejština
~ UČ SE KOREJSKY ~
Zde uvádím 24 základních znaků pro korejské samohlásky a souhlásky korejského písma - Hangulu (한글/Hangeul). V závorkách [ ] je uvedena anglická transkripce. anglické y se zde vyslovuje jako j, eo jako o, eu jako u, yeo jako jo.

~ 10 ZÁKLADNÍCH ZNAKŮ PRO SAMOHLÁSKY (VOWELS) ~

ㅓ ㅗ ㅜ ㅡ ㅣㅑ ㅕ ㅛ ㅠ


~ 14 ZÁKLADNÍCH ZNAKŮ PRO SOUHLÁSKY (CONSONANTS) ~
[uprostřed-na konci/na začátku]

ㄱㄴㄷㄹㅁㅂㅅㅇㅈㅊㅋㅌㅍㅎ

V hranatých závorkách je uvedeno na prvním místě výslovnost písmena, když je písme
no uprostřed nebo na konci slova, na druhém místě je uvedeno, jak se písmeno čte na začátku slova. Písmeno ㅇ [ø / ng] má dvě zvukové hodnoty v závislosti na své poloze ve slabice. V poloze počáteční slabiky má prázdný zvuk (null sound). V poloze konečné slabiky má výslovnost [ng], např. jak v anglickém slově young.
Např. u písmene [g/k] ㄱ → ve slově Goryeo (고려) se na začátku slova čte jako k [Korjo]. Goryeo byla korejská dynastie. Uvnitř slova se potom ㄱ čte jako g. Výslovnost ㅈ [j/j] odpovídá dž, ㅊ [ch/ch] vyslovujeme jako č.



~ 11 SLOŽENÝCH ZNAKŮ PRO SAMOHLÁSKY (VOWELS) ~

ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ᅪ ᅫ ᅬ ᅯ ᅰ ᅱ ᅴ

ae vyslovujeme jako [e] [ej], stejně tak v samohláskách yae nebo wae.

~ 5 SLOŽENÝCH ZNAKŮ PRO NATAŽENÉ SOUHLÁSKY (CONSONANTS) ~

ㄲ ㄸ ㅃ ㅆ ㅉ

Třebaže se ve slovech vyskytují dvě stejná písmena za sebou, vyslovujeme jen jednou. Např. ㄲ [kk] vyslovujeme jako [k]. V případě ㅉ [jj], vyslovujeme tento znak jako [č], nikoli jako [dž]!

PŘEHLED ANGLICKÉ A ČESKÉ VÝSLOVNOSTI PÍSMEN HANGULU
ㅏ [a]
ㅓ[eo] [o]
ㅗ [o]
ㅜ [u]
ㅡ [eu] [u]
ㅣ[i]
ㅑ [ya] [ja]
ㅕ[yeo] [jo]
ㅛ [yo] [jo]
ㅠ [yu] [ju]
ㄱ [g/k]
ㄴ [n/n]
ㄷ [d/t]
ㄹ [r/l]
ㅁ [m/m]
ㅂ [b/p]
ㅅ[s/s]
ㅇ[ nevyslovuje se /ng]
ㅈ [j/j] [dž/dž]
ㅊ [ch/ch] [č/č]
ㅋ [k/k]
ㅌ [t/t] [č/č]
ㅍ [p/p]
ㅎ [h/h]
ㅐ [ae] [e]
ㅒ [yae] [je]
ㅔ [e]
ㅖ [ye] [je]
ᅪ [wa]
ᅫ [wae] [ve]
ᅬ [we, oe]
ᅯ [wo]
ᅰ [we]
ᅱ [wi, y]
ᅴ [ui, y]
ㄲ [kk] [k]
ㄸ [tt] [t]
ㅃ [pp] [p]
ㅆ [ss] [s]
ㅉ [jj] [č]

pozn.: Pokud zaㅅ [s] následujeㅣ[i], vyslovujeme [ši] = si [ši], stejně tak shi [ši]. (shijak=šhidžak) Dvě oo za sebou se čte jako u.

HANGUL ~ ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION


~ UMÍSTĚNÍ ~

initial consonant - počáteční souhláska
vowel - samohláska
final consonant - konečná souhláska

~ JAK PSÁT KOREJSKÉ ZNAKY ~

Korejské znaky by měly být sloučeny do slabičných bloků. Znaky souhlásek a samohlásek nelze používat samostatně!
한글 správně
ㅎㅏㄴ ㄱㅡㄹ špatně


~ PŘEHLEDNÁ TABULKA PRO SKLÁDÁNÍ KOREJSKÝCH ZNAKŮ ~

source: www.kmaru.com; www.signflipstetable.com; www.innovativelanguage.com

ČLÁNEK BYL NAPSÁN AUTORKOU TOHOTO BLOGU S UŽITÍM PŘEKLADU A VÝŇATKU TEXTU Z ANGLICKÝCH ZDROJŮ.
Pro další šíření tohoto textu vždy užijte zdroj, zkopírovat můžete jen část textu, nikoli celý text.
 

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